Solar system discoveries new Worlds and Old Solar System Ambassador Program


НазваSolar system discoveries new Worlds and Old Solar System Ambassador Program
Дата конвертації19.04.2013
Розмір445 b.
ТипПрезентации


SOLAR SYSTEM DISCOVERIES

New Worlds and Old

Solar System Ambassador Program

John Sheff

Solar System Ambassador Program, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

jsheff@cfa.harvard.edu

http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/ambassador/

http://ww.jsheff.com

http://www.bostonastronomy.net

Solar System Discoveries

At first, all we knew about the planets was that they were "wanderers" against the background stars. Four hundred years ago, Galileo first turned the telescope to the sky, and the planets became "worlds." A half century ago, the first unmanned space probes started their explorations and the planets became "landscapes." What have we learned since about the planets of our Solar System and others? Is our Solar System unique? Are we close to finding another Earth? And -- most importantly of all -- what ever happened to Pluto?

Typical Ancient Astronomy

  • 7 Planets (including the Sun and Moon, but not Earth):

  • Mercury

  • Venus

  • Mars

  • Jupiter

  • Saturn



Greek Astronomy



Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 – 1543)



Giordano Bruno (1548 – 1600)



Tycho Brahe (1546 – 1601)



Galileo Galilei (1564 – 1642)



Galileo’s Discoveries

Lunar features

Galileo’s Discoveries

Moons of Jupiter

Johannes Kepler (1571 – 1630)



Isaac Newton (1643 – 1727)



William Herschel (1738 – 1822)



Discovery of Uranus - 1781



Uranus



Titius-Bode Law



Ceres



Pallas, Juno, Vesta

Pallas

Vermin of the Skies



Irregularities of Motion - Uranus



Discovery of Neptune - 1846

Urbain Jean-Joseph Le Verrier

Neptune



Irregularities of Motion - Mercury



Irregularities of Motion - Neptune



Lowell Observatory



Pluto – found at last!



1992 QB1



Eris (2003 UB₃₁₃)



The IAU Meeting: Prague 2006



An Inventory of the Solar System

  • 8 (or 9, 0r 13, or ?) Planets

  • 169+ Moons

  • 2 “Asteroid” Belts, with 100,000+ bodies ea

  • 1012 Comets

  • 1 G2 Star

  • Interplanetary Medium



The Inner Solar System



The Asteroid Belt



The Outer Solar System



The Kuiper Belt



The New Solar System



Dwarf Planets and Some Contenders



Solar System Roadmap



Coming Up:

  • Venus Climate Orbiter/PLANET-C launch (5/2010)

  • Hayabusa return to Earth ? (6/2010)

  • Rosetta asteroid Lutetia flyby (7/10/2010)

  • Deep Impact Comet 103P/ Hartley 2 flyby (10/11/2010)

  • Venus Climate Orbiter/PLANET-C arrival (12/2010)

  • Stardust Comet Tempel 1 flyby (2/14/2011)

  • MESSENGER Mercury orbit (3/18/2011 – 3/18/2012)

  • Dawn Vesta orbiter (7/2011 – 7/2012)

  • Juno launch (8/5/2011)



Mercury

    • Why is Mercury so dense?
    • What is the geologic history of Mercury?
    • What is the nature of Mercury’s magnetic field?
    • What is the structure of Mercury’s core?
    • What are the unusual materials at Mercury’s poles?
    • What volatiles are important at Mercury?


Mercury Exploration

  • Mariner 10 (1973-74)

  • MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) (2004 – 2012)

  • Bepi-Columbo (2014-2020)



Venus



Venus Missions

  • Mariner 2 (1962)

  • Mariner 5 (1967)

  • Venera 4-16 (1967 – 1983)

  • Pioneer Venus (1978)

  • Vega (1984 – 1986)

  • Magellan (1989 – 1994)

  • Venus Express (2005 -

  • Planet C



Venus below the clouds

Venera 13

Lunar Exploration - LRO



Lunar Science South Pole / Aitken Basin Sample Return

Potential mission goals:
  • – Test cataclysm idea by dating SPA and superimposed basins

  • – Determine compositions of impacting bodies

  • – Decipher composition of mid- to lower crust (maybe mantle)

  • – Unravel basaltic history

Complicated set of goals

Complicated geologic setting

Mars

  • Strategy: From “Follow the Water” to “Explore Habitable Environments”

    • Determine if Life Ever Arose on Mars
    • Characterize the Climate of Mars
    • Characterize the Geology of Mars
    • Prepare for Human Exploration of Mars


Mars – Mariner 9 (1971)



Mars – Viking 1 & 2

  • Viking 1 & 2 (1975-80)

  • Viking 1: Chryse Planitia

  • Viking 2: Utopia



Mars Exploration Rovers

  • Spirit & Opportunity

  • 6+ Years on Mars

  • Spirit: 4:80 miles

  • Opportunity: 11.94 miles



Mars Science Lab – “Curiosity”



Mars Sample Return – 2020 ?



Dawn - 2007



Dawn Targets



Juno - 2011



Europa Explorer



Europa Explorer



Europa Astrobiology Lander



“Far” Future (2040 – 2050) ?

  • Europa Submersible



Saturn System



Iapetus Flyby Sept. 10, 2007



Enceladus Flyby, Mar 12 2008



Cassini-Huygens at Titan



Beyond the XM



Cassini XXM “Solstice” Mission



Cassini Mission Overview



Cassini EOM Option



Titan Explorer



Titan Explorer



Titan Lake Submersible



New Horizons

  • Launch: 2006

  • Jupiter Flyby Gravity Assist: 2007

  • Pluto / Charon Encounter: 2015

  • KBO Encounters: 2016-2020



Exoplanets

  • 387 Detected as of November 2009

    • 281 single planets around single normal stars
    • 98 multiple-system planets around single normal stars
    • 1 around red dwarf / white dwarf binary
    • 1 around subdwarf B star / red dwarf binary
    • 1 around pulsar / white dwarf binary
    • 3 orbit single pulsars
    • 1 orbits single subdwarf B star
    • 1 orbits single brown dwarf


Pulsar Planets

  • Two planets discovered in 1992 around the millisecond pulsar PSR 1257+12.

  • These were the first two extrasolar planets discovered, and the first multi-planet extrasolar planetary system discovered, and the first pulsar planets discovered.

  • (b) had period of 66 days and mass of 4.3 Earths.

  • (c) had period of 98 days and mass of 3.9 Earths.

  • Two additional planets of lower mass were later discovered by the same technique



51 Pegasi

  • First exoplanet around a main-sequence star (1995)

  • 50 light-years away

  • Mass: > 1 Jupiter

  • Period: 4 days

  • “ Hot Jupiter”: surface temperature 1000 ° C (1800 ° F)



HD 222582 b

  • The planet orbiting this G3 star has one of the most eccentric planet orbits known to date. The 572-day orbit takes it from 0.39 AU to 2.31 AU from its star. It is located in the constellation Aquarius, 137 light-years distant. The water on this world's satellite, if one exists, goes through seasonal periods of melting and refreezing.



HD 177830 b

  • HD177830 b is a 1.52 Jupiter mass planet orbiting the K0 star HD177830, located 192 light-years away in the constellation Vulpecula. This planet is likely to be within its habitable zone. A moon found here could have liquid water and look similar to our own home world.



Upsilon Andromedae

  • The first planetary system ever found around a normal star consists of three planets in orbit around Upsilon Andromedae.

  • The innermost (and first known) of the three planets, Upsilon Andromedae b, contains at least three-quarters of the mass of Jupiter and orbits only 0.06 AU from the star. It traverses a circular orbit every 4.61 days.

  • The middle planet contains at least twice the mass of Jupiter and it takes 242 days to orbit the star once. It resides approximately 0.83 AU from the star, similar to the orbital distance of Venus.

  • The outermost planet has a mass of at least four Jupiters and completes one orbit every 3.5 to 4 years, placing it 2.5 AU from the star.



55 Cancri

  • Five confirmed planets (most in any system)

  • The innermost planet (e): 2.8 day orbit, discovered in 2004. Mass: 11 Earth masses.

  • The next planet (a), discovered in 1996; 14.7-day orbit. Mass: .824 Jupiters.

  • Planet ( c ), with an orbit of 44.3 days. Mass: 56 Earth masses.

  • The fourth world (f) is the newest discovery, having 45 Earth masses and an orbit of 260 days. It is near the star’s “habitable zone”!

  • The farthest world out (d)has an orbit comparable to Jupiter's. Period: 14.6 years.



Gliese 581

  • At least four planets are believed to be orbiting Gliese 581.

  • A fourth planet, Gliese 581 e, was discovered in 2009. This planet, at an estimated minimum mass of 1.9 Earths, is currently the lowest mass exoplanet identified around a normal star. It takes 3.15 days to orbit Gliese 581- but it’s too hot!

  • Gliese 581 b is at least 16 times as massive as Earth (similar to Neptune's mass) and completes a full orbit of Gliese 581 in only 5.4 days.

  • Gliese 581 c is probably a rocky planet with a radius 1.5 times that of Earth and a mass of roughly five times Earth—or one third that of Neptune. Gliese 581 c orbits just inside of the habitable zone of its parent star. It is notable as it is the planet with lowest minimum mass yet discovered in the habitable zone of another star, making it the most earthlike exoplanet found to date.[The mean blackbody surface temperature has been estimated to lie between -3 °C (for a Venus-like albedo) and 40 °C (for an Earth-like albedo), however, the temperatures could be much higher (about 500 degrees Celsius) due to a runaway greenhouse effect akin to that of Venus. Gliese 581 c completes a full orbit in just under 13 days.

  • Observations of the star also revealed a third planet, Gliese 581 d, with a mass of roughly 7 Earths, or half a Uranus, and an orbit of 66.8 Earth days. It orbits just inside of the habitable zone of its star, which makes it a potential candidate for being able to support life. “Water world?”



Kepler Mission

  • Launched : March 6, 2009

  • First Light: April 16, 2009

  • Checkout Ended: May 13, 2009

  • Data Collection: 3.5 years

  • Will monitor field of 223,000 stars

  • Should find:

    • ~ 30 outer-orbit giant planets
    • ~ 135 inner-orbit giant planets
    • ~ 640 Super-Earths
    • ~ 50 Earth-mass planets


A New Earth?

  • Within the next 5 years, we will probably find another Earth-like planet – an Earth-sized world in a stable orbit in a HZ of a Sun-like star



Solar System Ambassador Program

John Sheff

Solar System Ambassador Program, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

jsheff@cfa.harvard.edu

http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/ambassador/

Background:

 John Sheff has explored some remote parts of our planet on adventure travel journeys and mountaineering expeditions. His lifelong background as an amateur astronomer and space buff has him just as excited about the exploration of other planets. He enjoys participating in star parties, particularly inner-city ones, organized by his local club – the Amateur Telescope Makers of Boston (ATMoB). He also loves to share views of the sky through the observatory telescope he operates during Public Nights at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge. In his day job he’s had a career as a freelance Network Admin and IT Manager, and now does consulting in web development and science education. When on Earth, he lives in Cambridge, MA.

Portions of this PowerPoint Slide Show - as well as a free installable PowerPoint Viewer - are available for download on John Sheff’s website:

http://www.jsheff.com


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