Cosmic Fireworks: Supernova Explosions Stephen C. Y. Ng McGill University Outline


НазваCosmic Fireworks: Supernova Explosions Stephen C. Y. Ng McGill University Outline
Дата конвертації26.04.2013
Розмір445 b.
ТипПрезентации


Cosmic Fireworks: Supernova Explosions

Stephen C.-Y. Ng

McGill University

Outline

  • Why study supernova?

  • What is a supernova?

  • Why does it explode?

  • The aftermaths --- Supernova remnants

  • Will it destroy the Earth?



Where do they come from?





Supernova Explosions!



Gold, Silver & More



Heavy Elements



Building Blocks of Life



Life from Exploding Stars!



Why Study Supernova?

  • They are cool

    • most powerful explosions in the Universe


Why Study Supernova?

  • They are important

    • produce heavy elements beyond iron, e.g. gold, silver,…
    • recycle materials into space, e.g carbon, oxygen,…
    • shock wave triggers new star formation
  • They can get you a Nobel prize

    • SN Type Ia as standard candles for cosmology
  • They are bombs

    • shock wave physics


What is a Supernova?

  • Nova= new star



Historical Classification



Physical Classification



Why do they explode?

  • Stellar evolution

  • Core collapse

  • Thermonuclear



Life of a Sun-like Star



Life of a Massive Star



Pressure Balance



Stellar Alchemy



Life of a Sun-like Star



Massive Stars



Stellar Onion



Inert Iron Core



Stellar Onion



Core Collapse



Core Bounce



Core Bounce



Compact Core





How about SN Type Ia?



Main Ingredient: White Dwarf



Mass Transfer



Accreting White Dwarf



Binary Merger



Standard Candles



When can I see a Supernova?

  • Expect 1–2/century in our Galaxy, but long overdue:



SN 1054

  • 1054AD July 4

  • Crab Nebula (Messier 1)



Crab Nebula

  • Remnant of SN1054

  • Harbors the Crab Pulsar

--- most energetic neutron star found in the Milky Way

Historical Supernovae



Can I See One Now?

  • Catch one in the act? Go extragalactic!

  • As of today, 6065 extragalactic SNe observed



Extragalactic SNe



SN 1987A



SN 1987A

  • 1987 Feb 23, in the Large Magellanic Cloud

  • closest (hence brightest) SN observed in 300 yr, since invention of modern telescope

  • ~11 neutrinos detected, 3 hr prior to visible light

  • complex environment



Observations



Evolution



Expansion



Next Supernova in the Milky Way

  • A major event will be observed by every telescopes in all wavelengths

    • radio, IR, optical, X-ray, -ray,...
  • Multimessenger astronomy beyond EM radiation

    • neutrino telescopes
    • gravitational wave detectors


Will it destroy the Earth?



Summary

  • Supernovae are important:

    • produce everything on Earth
  • Explosion mechanisms:

    • core collapse of massive stars
    • thermonuclear detonations of white dwarfs
  • The next supernova?

    • we are safe


SNR G292.2-0.5



Triple-ring Structure



Triple Ring Nebula



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