Lecture 3 Theme: Noun. Gender of Nouns. Singular and Plural Nouns


НазваLecture 3 Theme: Noun. Gender of Nouns. Singular and Plural Nouns
Дата конвертації19.06.2013
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LECTURE 3

  • Theme: Noun. Gender of Nouns. Singular and Plural Nouns.




PLAN

  • 1. Noun. Gender of Nouns.

  • 2. Singular and Plural Nouns.





NOUN

  • Noun is a part of speech which means a living creature, a thing, or an abstract idea.







Ukrainian nouns are distinguished by gender:

  • masculine

  • feminine

  • neuter





Endings of Ukrainian nouns can also indicate whether the noun is single or plural. This is similar to English, where letter "s" is added to most nouns to make them plural.

  • Endings of Ukrainian nouns can also indicate whether the noun is single or plural. This is similar to English, where letter "s" is added to most nouns to make them plural.

  • However, nouns that are countable in Ukrainian may not necessarily be such in English and vice versa. Also, there are some nouns that are always plural.





Gender Singular nouns

  • Gender Singular nouns

  • Feminine країнa [krayina] столиця [stolyts'a] ніч [nich]

  • Masculine долар [dolar]

  • Neuter море [more] вікно [vikno] обличчя [oblych'a]



Their plural forms Translation

  • Their plural forms Translation

  • країни [ krayiny ] country столицi [stolytsi] capital city

  • нoчi [nochi] night

  • долари [dolary] dollar

  • моря [mor'a] sea вікнa [vikna] window обличчя [oblych'a] face





Endings of nouns:

  • Feminine nouns normally end in a/я.

  • Masculine nouns have consonants at the end (no changeable endings).

  • Neuter endings are e/o.



Endings of nouns:

  • In fact, a/я can also be the endings of masculine nouns, in particular, names (e.g., a man's name Микoла), but these nouns are not many.



In Ukrainian the noun has gender, case and number distinctions. There are three genders in Ukrainian. The gender of a noun can be determined by its ending:

  • masculine (m) - 1. a zero ending1: друг 2. the ending -о2: Дніпро, Петро

  • feminine (f.) - 1. the ending -а: подруга 2. the ending -я: Марія, земля

  • neuter (n.) - 1. the ending -о: ліжко 2. the ending -e: місце 3. the ending -я3: життя



Note1

  • Note1

  • A zero ending is a consonant ending: друг - friend

  • Note2

  • A noun ending in -о is masculine if it denotes a proper name: Дніпро (the name of the biggest Ukrainian river)

  • Note3

  • A noun ending in -я is neuter if preceded by a double consonant: життя - life The Nominative case (Nom.)



Declension

  • In Ukrainian nouns decline.

  • Declension is a change in the ending of a noun to denote its function in the sentence.

  • The endings a noun can acquire depending on its function in the sentence are called cases.

  • There are 7 cases in Ukrainian.



Declension

  • The Nominative case of a noun is its base form, so the gender of a noun is determined in this case. The Nominative case endings have been given above when dealing with the gender of nouns.





The Adjective

  • The adjective agrees with the noun in gender, case and number. Here is a table of the adjective's Nominative case endings:



The Adjective

  • Feminine

  • -a

  • добра кава good coffee

  • Яка? (What?)



The Adjective

  • Masculine

  • -ий

  • добрий друг a good friend

  • Який? (What?)



The Adjective

  • Neuter

  • -e

  • добре життя a good life

  • Яке? (What?)



The pronoun Personal pronouns

  • Singular

  • я – І

  • ти – you

  • він - he, it

  • вона - she, it

  • воно – it



The pronoun Personal pronouns

  • Plural

  • ми – we

  • ви – you

  • вони – they







  • Дякую за увагу!



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Прикметники в англ мові не змінюються ні за числами, ні за родами, ні за відмінками
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Герундій має такі дієслівні властивості: а Герундій перехідних дієслів вживається з прямим додатком

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